-=- Posted: Sunday 20 May 2018 -=-
Not long after the Big Bang, the first generations of stars began altering the chemical make-up of primitive galaxies, slowly enriching the interstellar medium with basic elements such as oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen. Finding the earliest traces of these common elements would shed important light on the chemical evolution of galaxies, including our own.
New observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reveal the faint, telltale signature of oxygen coming from a galaxy at a record-setting distance of 13.28 billion light-years from Earth, meaning we are observing this object it as it appeared when the universe was only 500 million years old, or less than 4 percent its current age.
For such a young galaxy, known as MACS1149-JD1, to contain detectable traces of oxygen, it must have begun forging stars even earlier: a scant 250 million years after the Big Bang. This is exceptionally early in the history of the universe and suggests that rich chemical environments evolved quickly.
-=- Posted: Saturday 28 April 2018 -=-
An article published today in The Astrophysical Journal presents the study of a magnetar – a star that is one of the most magnetic objects known in the universe – that awoke in 2017 from a 3-year slumber. Radio observations that could only be made with MeerKAT, a telescope being built in the Northern Cape province of South Africa, triggered observations with NASA X-ray telescopes orbiting the Earth. This first publication in the scientific literature of astronomical discoveries requiring the use of MeerKAT heralds its arrival into the stable of world-class research instruments.
Dr Fernando Camilo, Chief Scientist at the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO, which includes the Square Kilometre Array South Africa project), describes the setting one year ago: “On 26 April 2017, while monitoring the long-dormant magnetar with the CSIRO Parkes Radio Telescope in Australia, one of our colleagues noticed that it was emitting bright radio pulses every 4 seconds”. A few days later Parkes underwent a planned month-long maintenance shutdown. Although MeerKAT was still under construction, with no more than 16 of its eventual 64 radio dishes available, the commissioning team started regular monitoring of the star 30,000 light years from Earth. According to Camilo, “the MeerKAT observations proved critical to make sense of the few X-ray photons we captured with NASA’s orbiting telescopes – for the first time X-ray pulses have been detected from this star, every 4 seconds. Put together, the observations reported today help us to develop a better picture of the behaviour of matter in unbelievably extreme physical conditions, completely unlike any that can be experienced on Earth”.
-=- Posted: Monday 16 April 2018 -=-
The recent visit to our Solar System by the cometary fragment known as 'Oumuamua late last year proved to be very interesting. Rather than being spherical it was a long slender object about 4 kilometers in length. Its reflectivity was quite low indicating it was made of dark material and likely had no icy structure.
The ability of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope to view a large area of the sky and its large frequency coverage meant there was a possibility of detecting radio transmissions that might have come from 'Oumuamua. A paper was written detailing the examination of recorded data from the MWA during the time that 'Oumuamua was in range of Earth. Click here for the pdf of the publication.
-=- Posted: Wednesday 3 January 2018 -=-
While not strictly 'News', I found a great little Youtube video of a visit to one of the dishes at Kitt Peak that make up the Very Long Baseline Array.
-=- Posted: Friday 22 December 2017 -=-
We received a lovely Christmas message from the SKA Organisation reprinted as follows;
As 2017 comes to an end we can look back on a busy but productive year across the Square Kilometre Array project.
You can read all about recent developments from across the project in the latest edition of our newsletter, as well as news from the central Office in the latest edition of the SKAO Bulletin, our bi-monthly project update from the SKA Headquarters at Jodrell Bank, UK - seen above a few days ago after some heavy snow!
This is also an opportunity to mention we are currently recruiting for several roles within the SKA Office, which you can view here. I would encourage you to apply or distribute them within your professional networks.
Finally, I also invite you to read two feature stories we published earlier this week on some of the design activities for the two SKA telescopes. In addition to providing insights into the technical complexities, logistics and practical challenges of bringing together hardware coming from different parts of the world, this two-part series truly reflects the international nature of these two particular elements, and more generally of our project.
From lab to Outback: The story of AAVS1 so far covers some of the developments towards the SKA1-low telescope in Australia and Across 18 time zones: a global effort to deliver a dish prototype covers some of the developments towards SKA1-mid in South Africa.
2018, I am sure, will be an exciting and, as always, eventful year for the SKA.
I wish you season’s greetings and thank you for your continued support.
Prof. Philip Diamond
SKA Organisation Director-General
-=- Posted: Tuesday 28 November 2017 -=-
From an article in the Sydney Morning Herald 'The Milky Way has to eat galaxies to keep building stars. Our galaxy needs food, and these are kind of snacks'. Professor McClure-Griffiths and her team are interested in how galaxies form, and how they die. The best way to find that out, they say, is to follow the hydrogen. Hydrogen fuels stars and is the basic building block of all galaxies. Inside a galaxy it swirls around until it is compressed by gravity into a new star. A galaxy that has a lot of hydrogen can make new stars and expand in size. The team is studying the Small Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy that orbits the Milky Way. The Cloud has several hundred million stars – a small fry compared to the Milky Way's hundreds of billions.
-=- Posted: Thursday 23 November 2017 -=-
On Tuesday 21st November, our 36th PAF was installed on AK #29 marking the completion of installation of all receivers for ASKAP-36! Earlier this month, our last PAF (PAF # 40 – our second spare PAF), passed functional and EMI testing signifying the end of the PAF production testing at Marsfield. By the end of the month we will also be shipping the Jodrell Bank PAF to UK to complete our contract with Jodrell Bank Observatory (after having completed our Max Plank Institute contract in 2016). All of these milestones are very significant not just for all of the team members who have worked very hard for a number of years to bring this to fruition, but I am sure also for all of CASS and for its stakeholders awaiting this momentous occasion for some time.
There is no better way to finish off 2017. - Thanks again and Happy 36th!